• Andrews-Hanna, J.R., Irving, Z.C., Fox, K.C.R., Spreng, R.N., & Christoff, K. (in press). The Neuroscience of Spontaneous Thought: An Evolving, Interdisciplinary Field. [Download PDF]


  • Girn, M., Mills, C., Laycock, E., Ellamil, M., Ward, L., & Christoff, K. (in press). Neural Dynamics of Spontaneous Thought: An EEG Study. Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCI 2017). Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg. [Download PDF]


  • Dixon, M.L., Thiruchselvam, R., Todd, R.M., & Christoff, K. (in press). Emotion and the prefrontal cortex: An integrative review. Psychological Bulletin. [Download PDF]
  • Fox, K.C.R., Girn, M., Parro, C.C., & Christoff, K. (in press). Functional neuroimaging of psychedelic experience: An overview of psychological and neural effects and their relevance to research on creativity, daydreaming, and dreaming. To appear in: The Cambridge Handbook of the Neuroscience of Creativity, R.E. Jung and O. Vartanian (editors). Cambridge University Press. [Download PDF]


  • Dixon, M.L., Andrews-Hanna, J.R., Spreng, R.N., Irving, Z.C., & Christoff, K. (2017). Interactions between the default network and dorsal attention network vary across default subsystems, time, and cognitive states. Neuroimage, 147, 632-649. [Download PDF]
  • Dixon, M.L., Girn, M., & Christoff, K. (2017). Hierarchical organization of frontoparietal control networks underlying goal-directed behavior. The Prefrontal Cortex as an Executive, Emotional, and Social Brain, M. Watanabe (editor). Springer. [Download PDF]


  • Fox, K.C.R., Andrews-Hanna, J.R., & Christoff, K. (2016). The neurobiology of self-generated thought from cells to systems: Integrating evidence from lesion studies, human intracranial electrophysiology, neurochemistry, and neuroendocrinology. Neuroscience, 335, 134-150[Download PDF]
  • Christoff, K., Irving, Z.C., Fox, K.C.R., Spreng, R.N., & Andrews-Hanna, J.R. (2016). Mind-wandering as spontaneous thought: A dynamic framework. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 17, 718-731[Download PDF]
  • Fox, K.C.R., Kang, Y., Lifshitz, M., & Christoff, K. (2016). Increasing cognitive-emotional flexibility with meditation and hypnosis: The cognitive neuroscience of de-automatization. In: Hypnosis and Meditation, A. Raz and M. Lifshitz (editors), Ch. 11, pp. 191-219. New York: Oxford University Press. [Download PDF]
  • Ellamil, M., Fox, K.C.R., Dixon, M.L., Pritchard, S., Todd, R.M., Thompson, E., & Christoff, K. (2016). Dynamics of neural recruitment surrounding the spontaneous arising of thoughts in experienced mindfulness practitioners. NeuroImage, 136, 186-196. [Download PDF]

  • Fox, K.C.R., Dixon, M.L., Nijeboer, S., Girn, M., Floman, J.L., Lifshitz, M., Ellamil, M., Sedlmeier, P., & Christoff, K. (2016). Functional neuroanatomy of meditation: A review and meta-analysis of 78 functional neuroimaging investigations. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 65, 208-228. [Download PDF]


  • Dixon, M.L. (2015). Cognitive control, emotional value, and the lateral prefrontal cortex. Frontiers in Psychology: Cognitive Science. [Download PDF]

  • Fox, K.C.R., & Christoff, K. (2015). Transcranial direct current stimulation to lateral prefrontal cortex could increase meta-awareness of mind wandering. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A., 112(19), E2414. [Download PDF]

  • Fox, K.C.R., Spreng, R.N., Ellamil, M., Andrews-Hanna, J.R., & Christoff, K. (2015). The wandering brain: Meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies of mind-wandering and related spontaneous thought processes. NeuroImage, 111, 611-621. [Download PDF]

  • Domhoff, G.W., & Fox, K.C.R. (2015). Dreaming and the default network: A review, synthesis, and counterintuitive research proposal. Consciousness and Cognition, 33, 342-353. [Download PDF]


  • Fox, K.C.R., Thompson, E., Andrews-Hanna, J.R., & Christoff, K. (2014). Is thinking really aversive? Commentary on Wilson et al.'s "Just think: The challenges of the disengaged mind." Frontiers in Psychology: Cognition, 5(1427), 1-4. [Download PDF]

  • Christoff, K. (2014). Dehumanization in organizational settings: Some scientific and ethical considerations. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8(748), 1-5. [Download PDF]

  • Dixon, M.L., Fox, K.C.R., & Christoff, K. (2014). A framework for understanding the relationship between externally and internally directed cognition. Neuropsychologia, 62, 321-330. [Download PDF]

  • Dixon, M.L., Fox, K.C.R., & Christoff, K. (2014). Evidence for rostro-caudal functional organization in multiple brain areas related to goal-directed behavior. Brain Research, 1572, 26-39. [Download PDF]

  • Dixon, M.L., & Christoff, K. (2014). The lateral prefrontal cortex and complex value-based learning and decision making. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 45, 9-18. [Download PDF]

  • Solomonova, E., Fox, K.C.R., & Nielsen, T.A. (2014). Methodological considerations for the neurophenomenology of dreaming: Commentary on Windt's 'Reporting dream experience.' Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 8(317), 1-3. [Download PDF]

  • Fox, K.C.R., Nijeboer, S., Dixon, M.L., Floman, J.L., Ellamil, M., Rumak, S.P., Sedlmeier, P., & Christoff, K. (2014). Is meditation associated with altered brain structure? A systematic review and meta-analysis of morphometric neuroimaging in meditation practitioners. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 43, 48-73. [Download PDF]

  • Fox, K.C.R., & Christoff, K. (2014). Metacognitive facilitation of spontaneous thought processes: When metacognition helps the wandering mind find its way. In: The Cognitive Neuroscience of Metacognition, S.M. Fleming and C.D. Frith (editors); Ch. 13, pp. 293-319. Berlin: Springer. [Download PDF]

  • Bazargani, N., Hillebrandt, H., Christoff, K., & Dumontheil, I. (2014). Developmental changes in effective connectivity associated with relational reasoning. Human Brain Mapping, 35(7), 3262-3276. [Download PDF]


  • Christoff, K. (2013). Thinking. In: The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Neuroscience, Vol. 2: The Cutting Edges, K.N. Ochsner and S.M. Kosslyn (editors), Ch. 20, pp. 318-333. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 

  • Fox, K.C.R., Nijeboer, S., Solomonova, E., Domhoff, G.W., & Christoff, K. (2013). Dreaming as mind wandering: Evidence from functional neuroimaging and first-person content reports. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7(412), 1-18. [Download PDF]


  • Dixon, M.L., & Christoff, K. (2012). The decision to engage cognitive control is driven by expected reward-value: Neural and behavioral evidence. PLoS ONE, 7(12), e51637. [Download PDF]

  • Fox, K.C.R., Zakarauskas, P., Dixon, M. L., Ellamil, M., Thompson, E., & Christoff, K. (2012). Meditation experience predicts introspective accuracy. PLoS ONE, 7(9), e45370, 1-9. [Download PDF]

  • Ellamil, M., Dobson, C., Beeman, M., & Christoff, K. (2012). Evaluative and generative modes of thought during the creative process. NeuroImage, 59(2), 1783-94. [Download PDF]

  • Doshi, R. & Christoff, K. (2012). Introduction: The cognitive neuroscience of thought. Brain Research, 1428, 1-2. [Download PDF]


  • Christoff, K. (2011). Undirected thought: Neural determinants and correlates. Brain Research, 1428, 51-59. [Download PDF]
  • Schooler, J.W., Smallwood, J., Christoff, K., Handy, T.C., Reichle, E.D., & Sayette, M.A. (2011). Meta-awareness, perceptual decoupling and the wandering mind. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15(7), 319-326. [Download PDF]
  • Christoff, K., Cosmelli, D., Legrand, D., & Thompson, E. (2011). Clarifying the self: Response to Northoff. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15(5),187-188. [Download PDF]
  • Christoff, K., Cosmelli, D., Legrand, D., & Thompson, E. (2011). Specifying the self for cognitive neuroscience. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15(3), 104-112. [Download PDF]
  • McCaig, R.G., Dixon, M.L., Keramatian, K., Liu, I., & Christoff, K. (2011). Improved modulation of rostrolateral prefrontal cortex using real-time fMRI training and meta-cognitive awareness. NeuroImage, 55, 1298-1305. [Download PDF]
  • Christoff, K., Gordon, A. M., & Smith, R. (2011). The role of spontaneous thought in human cognition. In O. Vartanian and D. R. Mandel (Eds.), Neuroscience of Decision Making (pp. 259-284). New York: Psychology Press. [Download PDF]


  • Dumontheil, I., Houlton, R., Christoff, K., & Blakemore, S.J. (2010). Non-linear development of relational reasoning during adolescence. Developmental Science, 13(6), 15-24. [Download PDF]

  • Winters, J., Christoff, K., & Gorzalka, B.B. (2010). Dysregulated sexuality and high sexual desire: distinct constructs? Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39(5), 1029-1043. [Download PDF]


  • Christoff, K., Gordon, A. M., Smallwood, J., Smith, R., & Schooler, J. W. (2009). Experience sampling during fMRI reveals default network and executive system contributions to mind wandering. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 106(21), 8719-8724. [Download PDF]

  • Christoff, K., Keramatian, K., Gordon, A. M., Smith, R., & Maedler, B. (2009). Prefrontal organization of cognitive control according to levels of abstraction. Brain Research, 1286, 94-105. [Download PDF]

  • Christoff, K. (2009). Human thought and the lateral prefrontal cortex. In E. Kraft, B. Gulyás, and E. Pöppel (Eds.), Neural Correlates of Thinking (pp. 219-252). Heidelberg: Springer. [Download PDF]

  • Crone, E.A., Wendelken, C., van Leijenhorst, L., Honomichl, R., Christoff, K., & Bunge, S.A. (2009). Neurocognitive development of relational reasoning. Developmental Science, 12(1), 55-66. [Download PDF]

  • Winters, J., Christoff, K., & Gorzalka, B.B. (2009). Conscious regulation of sexual arousal in men. Journal of Sex Research, 46(4), 330-343. [Download PDF]


  • Christoff, K. (2008). Applying neuroscientific findings to education: The good, the tough, and the hopeful. Mind, Brain, and Education, 2(2), 55-58. [Download PDF]


  • Smith, R., Keramatian, K., & Christoff, K. (2007). Localizing the rostrolateral prefrontal cortex at the individual level. NeuroImage, 36, 1387-96. [Download PDF]

  • Christoff, K., & Keramatian, K. (2007). Abstraction of mental representations: Theoretical considerations and neuroscientific evidence. In:Perspectives on Rule-Guided Behavior (Eds: S.A.Bunge and J.D.Wallis) Oxford University Press. 


  • Christoff, K., & Owen, A.M. (2006). Improving reverse neuroimaging inference: Cognitive domain versus cognitive complexity. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10(8), 352-3. [Download PDF]

  • Smith, R., Keramatian, K., Smallwood, J., Schooler, J., Luus, B., & Christoff, K. (2006). Mind-wandering with and without awareness: An fMRI study of spontaneous thought processes. Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (Ed. R. Sun): 804-809. Vancouver: Erlbaum. [Download PDF]


  • Narayanan, N.S., Prabhakaran, V., Bunge, S.A., Christoff, K., Fine, E.M., & Gabrieli, J.D.E. (2005). The role of the prefrontal cortex in the maintenance of verbal working memory: An event-related fMRI analysis. Neuropsychology, 19(2), 223-232. [Download PDF]


  • Christoff, K., Ream, J.M., & Gabrieli, J.D.E. (2004). Neural basis of spontaneous thought processes. Cortex40, 623-630. [Download PDF]

  • DeCharms, R.C., Christoff, K., Glover, G.H., Pauly, J.M., Whitfield, S., & Gabrieli, J.D.E. (2004). Learned regulation of spatially localized brain activation using real-time fMRI. NeuroImage, 21, 436-43. [Download PDF]


  • Christoff, K., Ream, J.M., Geddes, L.P.T., & Gabrieli, J.D.E. (2003). Evaluating self-generated information: Anterior prefrontal contributions to human cognition. Behavioral Neuroscience, 117(6), 1161-1168. [Download PDF]

  • Anderson, A.K., Christoff, K., Panitz, D., De Rosa, E., & Gabrieli, J.D.E. (2003). Neural correlates of the automatic processing of threat facial signals. Journal of Neuroscience 23(13), 5627-5633. [Download PDF]

  • Anderson, A.K., Christoff, K., Stappen, I., Panitz, D., Gharamani, D.G., Glover, G., Gabrieli, J.D.E., & Sobel, N. (2003). Dissociated neural representations of intensity and valence in human olfaction. Nature Neuroscience, 6(2), 192-202. [Download PDF]


  • Christoff, K., Prabhakaran, V., Dorfman, J., Zhao, Z., Kroger, J.K., Holyoak, K.J., & Gabrieli, J.D.E. (2001). Rostrolateral prefrontal cortex involvement in relational integration during reasoning. NeuroImage, 14(5), 1136-1149. [Download PDF]

  • Brett, M., Christoff, K., Cusack, R., & Lancaster, J. (2001). Using the Talairach atlas with the MNI template. NeuroImage, 13(6), S85. [Download PDF]


  • Christoff, K., & Gabrieli, J.D.E. (2000). The frontopolar cortex and human cognition: Evidence for a rostrocaudal hierarchical organization within the human prefrontal cortex. Psychobiology28(2), 168-186. [Download PDF]


  • Christoff, K. (1999). Complexity and working memory resources: Task characteristics necessitating the executive control of attention. In: Ed. B. Kokinov, Perspectives on Cognitive Science: Volume 5. New Bulgarian University, Sofia. [Download PDF]